Proc. of the SIGCHI Conference on Human
Factors in Computing Systems. ACM, New
7. Ion, A., Kovacs, R., Schneider, O.,
Lopes, P., and Baudisch, P. Metamaterial
textures. Proc. of the SIGCHI Conference
on Human Factors in Computing Systems.
ACM, New York, 2018.
8. Ion, A., Lindlbauer, D., Herholz, P., Alexa,
M., and Baudisch, P. Understanding
metamaterial mechanisms. Proc. of the
SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors
in Computing Systems. ACM, New York,
9. Martínez, J, Hornus, S., Song, H, and
Lefebvre, S. Polyhedral Voronoi diagrams
for additive manufacturing. ACM Trans.
on Graphics 37, 4 (2018).
10. Phoenix, A. A. and Wilson, E. Variable
thermal Conductance metamaterials for
passive or active thermal management.
Proc. of the ASME Conference on Smart
Materials, Adaptive Structures and
Intelligent Systems. ASME, 2017.
11. Shaw, L. A., Sun, F., Portela, C.M.,
Barranco, R.I., Greer, J.R., and Hopkins,
J.B. Computationally efficient design of
directionally compliant metamaterials.
Nature Communications 10, 291 (2019).
Alexandra Ion is a postdoctoral researcher
in the Interactive Geometry Lab at E TH
Zurich. She received her Ph.D. from the Hasso
Plattner Institute, where she worked on
Patrick Baudisch is a professor of
computer science and chair of the HCI
Lab at the Hasso Plattner Institute. His
recent research focuses on making natural
interaction physical, in particular by means
of haptics and interactive fabrication. He is a
member of the CHI Academy and is an ACM
many potential application areas:
self-regulating medical devices
without hazardous materials, efficient
energy-harvesting materials that
react to changes in the environment,
miniaturized soft robots, and weather-aware facades in architecture.
Understanding the design space
of metamaterials, which spans
many disciplines, is important
to foster future developments.
Furthermore, integrating concepts
from self-assembly, shape-changing
interfaces, programmable matter,
and soft robotics will also push
metamaterials further. We believe
that the possibilities of heterogenous
metamaterial devices will be extensive,
which emphasizes the importance of a
comprehensive framework that can be
shared with and built upon by fellow
We thank our colleagues Ludwig
Wall, Pedro Lopes, David Lindlbauer,
Philipp Herholz, Marc Alexa,
and Robert Kovacs for insightful
1. Bertoldi, K., Vitelli, V., Christensen, J.,
and van Hecke, M. Flexible mechanical
metamaterials. Nature Reviews Materials
2, 11 (2017), 17066.
2. Bückmann, T., Thiel, M., Kadic, M.,
Schittny, R., and Wegener, M. An
elasto-mechanical unfeelability cloak
made of pentamode metamaterials.
Nature Communications 5, 4130 (2014).
DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5130; https://www.
3. Overvelde, J. T. B., de Jong, T. A., Shevchenko,
Y., Becerra, S. A., Whitesides, G. M., Weaver,
J., Hoberman, C., and Bertoldi, K. A three-dimensional actuated origami-inspired
transformable metamaterial with multiple
degrees of freedom. Nature Communications
7 (2016), 10929.
4. Qamar, I., Groh, R., Holman, D.,
and Roudaut, A. Bridging the gap
bet ween material science and human-computer interaction. Interactions 26, 5
(Sept.–Oct. 2019), 64–69; https://doi.
5. Ion, A., Frohnhofen, J., Wall, L., Kovacs,
R., Alistar, M., Lindsay, J., Lopes, P., Chen,
H.-T., and Baudisch, P. Metamaterial
mechanisms. Proc. of the Annual
Symposium on User Interface Software and
Technology. ACM, Ne w York, 2016.
6. Ion, A., Wall, L., Kovacs, R., and Baudisch,
P. Digital mechanical metamaterials.
DOI: 10.1145/3374498 COPYRIGHT HELD BY AUTHORS. PUBLICATION RIGHTS LICENSED TO ACM. $15.00
Figure 4. We already demonstrated parts of metamaterial devices to be feasible. We presented processing analog input by implementing
mechanisms based on microstructure (left), engineered materials that can process inputs digitally (middle), and providing output via dynamically
changing textures (right).
PROCESS PROCESS OUTPUT
Figure 5. Metamaterials are challenging to design; thus they require computational design
tools. In this example (a), setting one cell rigid (b) prevents seven cells from shearing, changing
the output drastically (c).