cOmPUTEr ScIEncE IS an expanding research
field driven by emerging application domains and
improving hardware and software that eliminate old
bottlenecks even as they create new challenges and
opportunities for CS research. Accordingly, the number
of research papers published in CS conferences and
journals has been increasing rapidly for the past two
decades. With growing emphasis on externally funded
research in most universities, scientific research is
increasingly influenced by funding opportunities.
Although many funded programs are developed in
close collaboration with leading researchers, we aim
here to identify more precisely relationships between
funding and publications related to new topics.
Trend analysis has long been researched and
applied to many types of datasets, from medical17
to weather15 to stock markets.
publications track research trends,
analyze the impact of a particular
paper on the development of a field
or topic, and study the relationships
between different research fields.
The Web of Science22 has collected
data since 1900 on nearly 50 million
publications in multiple scientific
disciplines and analyzed it at various
levels of detail by looking at the over-
all trends and patterns of emerging
fields of research and the influence of
individual papers on related research
areas. Over the past decade, besides
the Web of Science, studies have also
investigated the overlap and evolution
of social communities around a field
or a topic. Rosvall and Bergstrom18, 19
explored methods and visualizations
for scientific research and analyzed
the impact of each research area quan-
tified by the collective cross-disciplin-
ary citations of each paper. Porter and
Rafols16 analyzed citation informa-
tion to find evidence of collaboration
across fields in scientific research.
Other examples are network models
for studying the structure of the social
science collaboration network13 and
women’s authorship of CS publica-
tions in the ACM digital library.
Several studies have focused on
challenges, directions, and land-
scapes in specific CS fields2, 7 and on
Keywords in the ACM Digital Library and
IEEE Xplore digital library and in NSF grants
anticipate future CS research.
BY APiRAK hoonLoR, BoLesLAW K. sz YmAnsKi,
AnD mohAmmeD J. zAKi
A burst of new keywords in grants generally
precedes their burst in publications;
less than one-third of new keywords
burst in publications first, reflecting the
importance of funding for success of
new Cs fields.
A typical scientist’s research focus
changes in roughly a 10-year cycle and
often includes a once-in-a-career shift,
likely in response to evolving technology
creating new Cs fields.
Cs continues to experience continuous
and fundamental transformation; for
example, in the past two decades,
new topics arose within the internet
research cluster, while some previously
popular topics (such as mathematical