strong provenance built on data signatures will identify content producers. Strong provenance will enhance
trust in, and security of, content, while
simultaneously complicating anonymous information production. Strong
provenance may also help content producers identify infringing content, and
signatures provide a mechanism to help
producers secure content with encryption-based access control. But pervasive
storage and request/response data exchange will challenge producers interested in content control and geographic
access restrictions. Finally, network
neutrality is a complicated outcome to
predict. Future decisions in naming and
routing may hinder network neutrality,
as the use of names for routing could
facilitate new forms of traffic discrimination. At the same time, NDN will promote increased competition among network operators by enabling applications
to efficiently route around infrastructure
that constrains their traffic.
This article has sought to address
policy and social implications of the
network that are significant departures
from today’s IP Internet. As such, it has
not addressed Internet policy topics that
remain closely tied to existing challenges
in IP, which are areas for future work. For
example, NDN faces challenges in globally routable naming rights management similar to those of IP. We have also
not addressed application-level policy
issues such as the relationship between
advertising data collection and privacy
or application-level regulations such as
accessibility requirements or required
geolocation services such as E911.
However, identifying open questions
relevant to the network layers illustrates
an advantage of anticipatory policy stud-
ies. Analyzing potential social and policy
impacts of the NDN architecture can
help prioritize research questions with-
in the NDN project and broader con-
tent-centric networking initiatives. The
practical impact of NDN will depend
on future directions in several open re-
search areas: ( 1) balancing meaningful
names to simplify application develop-
ment with opaque names to protect pri-
vacy; ( 2) standardizing mechanisms for
cryptographic key assignment, distri-
bution and revocation; ( 3) developing
usable design patterns for managing
trust in a broad range of applications;
( 4) providing usable, secure imple-
mentations of more complex multi-
participant encryption schemes; and
( 5) creating fair congestion manage-
ment to enable network neutrality.
Most of NDN’s potential policy im-
pacts are speculative, in part because
we are exploring them while the architec-
ture design is still evolving. Yet imagining
the social changes NDN might encour-
age during the design process provides
opportunities for pro-social computing
research. We hope this work will spark
continuing discussion of the current and
future Internet’s impact on society. Think-
ing creatively about changes can help us
better understand the relationship be-
tween infrastructure and our world.
Acknowledgments. The authors
thank Van Jacobson, David D. Clark, Paul
Ohm, Charles Duan, Steven Bellovin,
and anonymous reviewers for feedback
and ideas that shaped this work. This
research was supported by the National
Science Foundation under grant numbers CNS-1040868, CNS-1421876, and
1. Afanasyev, A., Mahadevan, P., Moiseenko, I., Uzun, E.
and Zhang, L. Interest flooding attack and
countermeasures in Named Data Networking.
IFIP Net working Conference, 2013, 1–9.
2. Agyapong, P. K. and Sirbu, M. Economic incentives
in information-centric networking: Implications for
protocol design and public policy. IEEE Commun.
Mag. 50, 12 (2012), 18–26; http://doi.org/10.1109/
3. Bannis, A. and Burke, J.A. Creating a secure, integrated
home net work of things with Named Data Networking.
UCLA, 2015, Los Angeles, CA.
4. Baxter, G. and Sommerville, I. 2011. Socio-technical
systems: From design methods to systems engineering.
Interacting with Computers 23, 1 (2011), 4–17; http://doi.
5. Bendrath, R. and Mueller, M. The end of the net as
we know it? Deep packet inspection and Internet
governance. New Media & Society 13, 7 (2011),
6. Best, M.L. and Wade, K. W. Democratic and antiDemocratic regulators of the Internet: A framework. The
Information Society 23, 5 (2007), 405–411; http://doi.
7. Blanchette, J.-F. and Johnson, D.G. Data retention and
the panoptic society: the social benefits of forgetfulness.
The Information Society 18 (2002), 33–45.
8. Burke, J. A., Gasti, P., Nathan, N. and Tsudik, G. Securing
instrumented environments over content-centric
networking: the case of lighting control. In Proceedings
of IEEE INFOCOMM 2013 NOMEN Workshop. Retrieved
Aug. 7, 2015; http://named-data.net/publications/nomen13/
9. Chaabane, A., De Cristofaro, E., Kaafar, M.A. and Uzun,
E. 2013. Privacy in content-oriented networking:
Threats and countermeasures. SIGCOMM Comput.
Commun. Rev. 43, 3 (2013), 25–33; http://doi.
10. Citron, D. K. Civil rights in our information age. In The
offensive internet: privacy, speech, and reputation.
Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA and London,
11. Clark, D.D., Bauer, S., Lehr, W. et al. Measurement and
analysis of Internet interconnection and congestion.
In Proceedings of the 42nd Research Conference on
Communication, Information, and Internet Policy. Social
Science Research Network, 2014. Retrieved Aug. 17,
12. Clark, D.D., Wroclawski, J., Sollins, K.R. and Braden, R.
Tussle in cyberspace: Defining tomorrow’s Internet. In
Proceedings of the 2002 Conference on Applications,
Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for
Computer Communications, ACM, 347–356; http://doi.
13. Cohen, J.E. A right to read anonymously: A closer look at
“copyright management” in cyberspace. Connecticut Law
Review 28 (1996), 981–1039.
14. Compagno, A. Conti, M., Gasti, P. and Tsudik, G. Poseidon:
Mitigating interest flooding DDoS attacks in Named
Data Networking. In Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE 38th
Conference on Local Computer Networks, 630–638;
15. Cooke, L. 2007. Controlling the net: European
approaches to content and access regulation. Journal of
Information Science 33, 3 (2007), 360–376; http://doi.
16. DeNardis. L. Hidden levers of internet control.
Information, Communication & Society 15, 5 (2012),
17. DiBenedetto, S., Gasti, P., Tsudik, G. and Uzun, E.
ANDaNA: Anonymous Named Data Networking
application. In Proceedings of the 19th Annual Network
& Distributed System Security Symposium, Internet
Society. Retrieved June 26, 2012; http://arxiv.org/
18. Fu, W., Abraham, H.B. and Crowley, P. Synchronizing
namespaces with invertible bloom filters. In Proceedings
of the 11th ACM/IEEE Symposium on Architectures
for Networking and Communications Systems. IEEE
Computer Society, 123–134. Retrieved Aug. 17, 2015;
19. Gillespie, T. Wired Shut: Copyright and the Shape of
Digital Culture. The MIT Press, 2009.
20. Google transparency report. 2005. Retrieved Aug. 17,
21. Jacobson, V., Smetters, D.K., Thornton, J.D., Plass, M.,
Briggs, N. and Braynard, R. Networking named content.
Commun. ACM 55, 1 (Jan. 2012), 117–124; http://doi.
22. Lessig, L. Code: Version 2.0. Basic Books, New York, NY,
23. Mayer-Schoenberger, V. Useful Void: The Art of Forgetting
in the Age of Ubiquitous Computing. Harvard University,
Cambridge, MA, 2007.
24. Pfaffenberger, B. Technological dramas. Science,
Technology & Human Values 17, 3 (1992), 282–312.
25. Phillips, D.J. From privacy to visibility: Context, identity,
and po wer in ubiquitous computing environments. Social
Text 23, 2 (2005), 95–108.
26. Richards, N.M. The perils of social reading. Georgetown
Law Journal 101, 3 (2013). Retrieved Apr. 15, 2012;
27. Rosen, J. The right to be forgotten. Stanford Law Review
Online 64 (2012), 88.
28. Shang, W., Ding, Q., Marianantoni, A., Burke, J. and Zhang,
L. Securing building management systems using named
data networking. IEEE Network 28, 3 (2014), 50–56;
29. Yu, Y., Afanasyev, A., Clark, D., claffy, kc, Jacobson, V.
and Zhang, L. Schematizing and automating trust in
Named Data Networking. In Proceedings of the 2nd ACM
Conference on Information-Centric Networking. ACM, 2015.
30. Yu, Y., Afanasyev, A. and Zhang, L. Name-based access
control. University of California Los Angeles, CA, 2015.
31. Zhang, L. Estrin, D., Burke, J.A. et al. Named Data
Networking Tech Report 001. University of California
Los Angeles, CA, 2010. Retrieved Sept. 8, 2014; http://
Katie Shilton ( email@example.com) is an assistant
professor of information studies at the University of
Maryland, College Park.
Jeffrey A. Burke ( firstname.lastname@example.org) is the
assistant dean, technology and innovation, in the School of
Theater, Film and Television at the University of California,
kc claffy ( email@example.com) is the founder and director of the
Center for Applied Internet Data Analysis (CAIDA) at the
University of California, San Diego.
Lixia Zhange ( firstname.lastname@example.org) is the Jonathan B. Poste;
Professor of Computer Science at the University of
California, Los Angeles.
Copyright held by authors.