Cooperation with other cities in Spain,
along with European Union support,
was also important.
However, this involvement essentially took place by adopting a top-down perspective, with the Barcelona
City Council leading efforts in the city:
though other actors participated, the
City Council provided explicit direction regarding strategy, programs, and
projects in the smart-city effort.
In terms of policy context, the smart-
city strategy clearly expanded while al-
ways keeping in mind the need to prior-
itize urban-transformational projects.
However, the strategy’s political and in-
stitutional components proved fragile
es, and rearticulating city governance
processes. Meanwhile, Mayor Trias
actively supported development of the
smart city. So did the Urban Habitat
department, politically and technically.
The Computer Municipal Institute
also helped implement the strategy,
adapting to its evolution, from siloed
to citywide effort.
Technology was, and still is, at the
core of the Barcelona urban-develop-ment model and essential crosswise tool
supporting the innovation process. Unlike many other cities, Barcelona’s key
smart projects reflected and continue
to reflect the strategic use of technology in development of a smart city.
Regarding governance, Barcelona
involved several local and regional
stakeholders in the definition and implementation of its smart-city strategy,
particularly businesses and universities. Indeed, public-private partnerships and collaboration with other
public administrations proved highly
effective in the implementation of the
various local programs, though each
such program has been managed differently. In the case of Barcelona, a lot
of support/cooperation thus came from
the Autonomous Government of Catalonia, particularly in relation to wider
projects that included other areas in
Catalonia, in addition to Barcelona.
Table 2. Barcelona’s 22 smart local programs following Ferrer6 and Gavaldà and Ribera.
Program Year launched Main dimensions addressed5
Telecommunications and networks 2013 Built infrastructure
Urban platform 2013 Technology
Smart data 2013 Technology
Smart lighting 2013 Technology, built infrastructure, natural environment
Energy self-sufficiency 2013 Technology, built infrastructure, natural environment
Smart water 2013 Technology, built infrastructure, natural environment
Smart mobility 2013 but most in 2014 Technology, built infrastructure, natural environment
Urban transformation 2013 Built infrastructure
Smart urban furniture 2014 Built infrastructure
Urban resilience 2013 Governance, built infrastructure, natural environment
Smart citizens 2013 People and communities
Open government 2013 Management and organization, technology, people and communities
Barcelona In Your Pocket 2013 Management, organization, technology, people and communities
Smart garbage collection 2013 Technology, built infrastructure, natural environment
Smart regulation 2014 Policy context
Smart innovation 2013 Economy
Health and social services 2013 Technology, governance, people and communities
Education 2013 Technology, governance, people and communities
Smart tourist destination 2013 Technology, governance, people and communities, economy
Infrastructure and logistics 2013 Economy
Leisure and culture Not begun Technology, governance, people and communities
Security 2014 Technology, governance, people and communities
a Results are available only for very specific projects reported up to 2014.