The practice of crowdsourcing is transforming
the Web and giving rise to a new field.
By anhai Doan, RaGhu RamaKRishnan, anD aLon y. haLeVy
cRowdSouRcInG SYSTEmS enlist a multitude of
humans to help solve a wide variety of problems.
Over the past decade, numerous such systems
have appeared on the World-Wide Web. Prime
examples include Wikipedia, Linux, Yahoo! Answers,
Mechanical Turk-based systems, and much effort is
being directed toward developing many more.
As is typical for an emerging area, this effort
has appeared under many names, including peer
production, user-powered systems, user-generated
content, collaborative systems, community systems,
social systems, social search, social
media, collective intelligence, wikinomics, crowd wisdom, smart mobs,
mass collaboration, and human
computation. The topic has been discussed extensively in books, popular
press, and academia.
1, 5, 15, 23, 29, 35 But this
body of work has considered mostly
efforts in the physical world.
23, 29, 30
Some do consider crowdsourcing
systems on the Web, but only certain
system types28, 33 or challenges (for example, how to evaluate users12).
This survey attempts to provide a
global picture of crowdsourcing systems on the Web. We define and classify such systems, then describe a
broad sample of systems. The sample
Crowdsourcing systems face four key
challenges: how to recruit contributors,
what they can do, how to combine their
contributions, and how to manage abuse.
many systems “in the wild” must also
carefully balance openness with quality.
the race is on to build general crowdsourcing platforms that can be used to
quickly build crowdsourcing applications
in many domains. using these, we can
already build databases previously
unimaginable at lightning speed.