algorithmic solutions can help reduce
energy consumption in computing environs.
BY susanne aLBeRs
eNerGY CoNserVaTioN is a major concern today.
Federal programs provide incentives to save energy
and promote the use of renewable energy resources.
Individuals, companies, and organizations seek energy-efficient products as the energy cost to run equipment
has grown to be a major factor.
energy consumption is also critical in computer systems, in terms of both cost and availability. electricity
costs impose a substantial strain on the budget of
data and computing centers. Google engineers,
maintaining thousands of servers, warned that if power
consumption continues to grow, power costs can easily
overtake hardware costs by a large margin. 12 In office
environments, computers and monitors account
for the highest energy consumption after lighting.
Power dissipation is also a major concern in portable,
battery-operated devices that have
proliferated rapidly in recent years.
Each of us has experienced the event
that the battery of our laptop or mobile
phone is depleted. The issue is even
more serious in autonomous, distributed devices such as sensor networks
where the charging of batteries is difficult or impossible. Finally, energy
dissipation causes thermal problems.
Most of the energy consumed by a system is converted into heat, resulting in
wear and reduced reliability of hardware components.
For these reasons, energy has
become a leading design constraint
for computing devices. Hardware engineers and system designers explore
new directions to reduce the energy
consumption of their products. The
past years have also witnessed considerable research interest in algorithmic
techniques to save energy. This survey
reviews results that have been developed in the algorithms community
to solve problems in energy management. For a given problem, the goal
is to design energy-efficient algorithms
that reduce energy consumption while
minimizing compromise to service.
An important aspect is that these algorithms must achieve a provably good
This article focuses on the system and device level: How can we
minimize energy consumption is
a single computational device? We
energy management has become
an important issue in computing
environments. algorithmic techniques
provide effective solutions for energy
savings, complementing hardware and
energy-efficient algorithms have been
developed for a range of fundamental
power management and dynamic
speed-scaling problems that arise in
energy conservation involves decision
making with incomplete information
about the future. energy-efficient
algorithms achieve a provably good
performance relative to the true