We would like to thank Antonio Torralba for the gist code
and useful comments and Gabriel Brostow for sharing their
hole-filling software. We also thank Tamara Berg, Alex Berg,
and Rob Fergus for sharing their image downloading scripts.
Finally we are grateful to Flickr for allowing us to download
so many images. This work has been partially supported by
NSF Graduate Research Fellowship to James Hays and by
NSF grants CCF-0541230 and IIS-0546547.
1. Agarwala, A., Dontcheva, M., Agrawala,
M., Drucker, S., Colburn, A., Curless, B.,
Salesin, D., and Cohen, M. Interactive
digital photomontage. ACM Trans.
Graph., 23( 3):294–302, 2004.
2. Agrawal, A., Raskar, R., and
Chellappa, R. What is the range
of surface reconstructions from a
gradient field? European Conference
on Computer Vision (ECCV), May 2006.
3. Boykov, Y., Veksler, O., and Zabih, R.
Fast approximate energy minimization
via graph cuts. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal.
Mach. Intell., 23( 11):1222–1239, 2001.
4. Criminisi, A., Perez, P., and
Toyama, K. Object removal by
exemplar-based inpainting. CVPR,
5. Diakopoulos, N., Essa, I., and Jain, R.
Content based image synthesis.
Conference on Image and Video
Retrieval (CIVR), 2004.
6. Drori, I., Cohen-Or, D., and Yeshurun,
H. Fragment-based image completion.
ACM Trans. Graph., 22( 3):303–312,
7. Efros, A. A. and Freeman, W. T.
Image quilting for texture synthesis
and transfer. Proceedings of
SIGGRAPH 2001, pages 341–346,
8. Efros, A. A. and Leung, T. K. Texture
synthesis by non-parametric
sampling. ICCV, pages 1033–1038,
Corfu, Greece, September 1999.
9. Hays, J. and Efros, A. A. Scene
completion using millions of
photographs. ACM Trans. Graph.
(SIGGRAPH 2007), 26( 3): 4, 2007.
10. Hays, J. and Efros, A. A. im2gps:
estimating geographic information
from a single image. CVPR, 2008.
11. Jia, J., Sun, J., Tang, C.-K., and Shum,
H.-Y. Drag-and-drop pasting. ACM
Trans. Graph., 25( 3): 631–637, 2006.
12. Johnson, M., Brostow, G. J., Shotton, J.,
Arandjelovic′, O., Kwatra, V., and Cipolla,
R. Semantic photo synthesis. Comput.
Graph. Forum (Proc. Eurographics),
25( 3):407–413, 2006.
13. King, D. The Commissar Vanishes.
Henry Holt and Company, London,
14. Kwatra, V., Essa, I., Bobick, A., and
Kwatra, N. Texture optimization for
example-based synthesis. ACM Trans.
Graph., 24: 795–802, 2005.
15. Kwatra, V., Schodl, A., Essa, I.,
Turk, G., and Bobick, A. Graphcut
textures: Image and video synthesis
using graph cuts. ACM Trans. Graph.,
22( 3):277–286, 2003.
16. Oliva, A. and Torralba, A. Building
the gist of a scene: The role of
global image features in recognition.
Visual perception. Progr. Brain Res.,
155: 23–36, 2006.
17. Perez, P., Gangnet, M., and Blake, A.
Poisson image editing. ACM Trans.
Graph., 22( 3):313–318, 2003.
18. Russell, B. C., Torralba, A., Murphy,
K. P., and Freeman, W. T. LabelMe:
A database and web-based tool for
image annotation. Technical Report,
MI T, 2005, 2005.
19. Snavely, N., Seitz, S. M., and Szeliski,
R. Photo tourism: exploring photo
collections in 3d. ACM Trans. Graph.,
25( 3):835–846, 2006.
20. Sun, J., Yuan, L., Jia, J., and Shum,
H.-Y. Image completion with
structure propagation. ACM Trans.
Graph., 24( 3):861–868, 2005.
21. Torralba, A., Fergus, R., and Freeman,
W. T. Tiny images. Technical Report
22. Torralba, A., Murphy, K. P., Freeman,
W. T., and Rubin, M. A. Context-based
vision system for place and object
recognition. ICCV, 2003.
23. Wertheimer, M. Laws of organization
in perceptual forms (partial
translation). In: W. Ellis, editor,
A Sourcebook of Gestalt Psychology,
pages 71–88. Harcourt Brace and
Company, London, 1938.
24. Wexler, Y., Shechtman, E., and Irani, M.
Space-time video completion. CVPR,
25. Wilczkowiak, M., Brostow, G. J.,
Tordoff, B., and Cipolla, R. Hole filling
through photomontage. BMVC,
492–501, July 2005.
James hays and Alexei A. Efros ( firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com)
Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, PA, USA
A previous version of this paper was published in ACM Transactions on Graphics,
Vol. 26, Issue 3 (July 2007).
© 2008 ACM 0001-0782/08/1000 $5.00
ACM Transactions on
This quarterly publication encompasses many disciplines
in computing—including computer software engineering,
middleware, database management, security, knowledge discovery and data mining, networking and distributed systems,
communications, and performance and scalability—all under
one roof. TOIT brings a sharper focus on the results and roles
of the individual disciplines and the relationship among
them. Extensive multi-disciplinary coverage is placed on the
new application technologies, social issues, and public policies
shaping Internet development.