studies that clarify how they differ from established constructs.
Otherwise we risk ending up with
an endless number of words that
describe similar phenomena within
UX, something from which the
characterization of user satisfaction
in usability research has suffered.
Most researchers agree that UX
is multidimensional. Therefore we
looked at how many dimensions
researchers study in their work.
Surprisingly, almost half of the
studies assessed only one dimension; 71 percent of the studies
assessed two or fewer dimensions.
Thus, UX—despite being thought of
as a multifaceted and complex construct—is often approached in quite
User observation (live)
Collage or drawing
• Figure 2 (top).
Dimensions collected in UX research.
Figure 3 (bottom).
methods in UX
enchantment a crucial and distinct
component of UX? What is the dif-
ference between enchantment and
established concepts such as, for
instance, the experience of flow? Is
flow a condition or a consequence
of enchantment? No studies in our
sample report how enchantment
can be measured and consequently
help clarify its role within UX
and the difference between it and
other concepts. We do not think
that enchantment is any more
or any less problematic than the
other dimensions being proposed.
However, if new dimensions are
needed and proposed, they should
at some stage be accompanied by
How Do We Study UX?
The methods applied in UX research
are often debated, in particular
those concerning the suitability
of qualitative and quantitative
approaches. A key issue is whether
UX may be measured and modeled,
and if so, how. Therefore we looked
at the methods currently applied by
UX researchers. Half of the studies
are qualitative ( 50 percent), whereas
33 percent use quantitative methods and 17 percent combine the
approaches. These figures differ
considerably from traditional HCI,
where one estimate suggests that 14
percent of the studies are qualitative, whereas about 65 percent are
quantitative [ 4]. The shift toward
UX seems to be accompanied by a
change in methodology.
Another important question is
how UX data is collected (see Figure
3). We found that questionnaires
are the dominant UX-assessment
method ( 53 percent). Others apply
qualitative methods from HCI that
involve talking directly with users,
using semi-structured interviews
( 20 percent), focus groups ( 15