and embedded them into Web
pages. Netflix reinvented itself as
a streaming-video service, followed
by Roku, Boxee, AppleTV, and Hulu.
The TED Talks and Kahn Academy
show the promise of amassing
libraries of educational videos.
A9’s Block View and Google’s
Street View recreated the Aspen
Movie Map [ 3] around the world.
An early sign of the convergence
of broadcasting and computing
was the video game. Today video
games are a $10.5 billion-per-year
business in the U.S., rivaling the
movie industry’s $10.6 billion
annual revenue [ 4]. The two industries are now closely intertwined.
Studios such as Disney regularly
turn films into games. In a similar
example, the Harry Potter book
series has spawned movies and
hundreds of games. At the same
time, some movies have adopted
aspects of games (for example,
Sucker Punch), and an animation
genre, Machinima, has emerged
using video games to produce
Video games have affected culture more broadly. Gamification—
including game play or game principles in applications and services—has become a way to increase
user engagement and has spawned
articles, books, and conferences.
Publishing + broadcasting.
Shipping atoms costs more than
shipping bits. The printing of newspapers, magazines, and academic
journals may largely disappear.
Last September, Arthur Sulzberger,
publisher of the New York Times,
acknowledged “we will stop printing” as the paper reinvents itself
online [ 5, 6]. In May, Amazon
reported selling more Kindle books
than print books—hardcover
and paperback combined [ 7].
RSS has disaggregated publish-
ing and created opportunities for
re-aggregators like Google News
and Popurls, and for attention ana-
lyzers like Flipboard, Pulse, and
Zite. At the same time, thousands
of new voices have sprung up in
blogs, microblogs, and tweets.
The rise of the Internet requires a
reassessment of Convergence 1.0.
Negroponte developed his model
of convergence very early. Personal
computers were in their infancy.
The Internet was a small government experiment used mainly to
exchange mail and files. Nothing
like the Web existed.
Negroponte has acknowledged
that none of us saw the Web coming. It took a while to see, as Andy
Grove later did, that “all companies
will be Internet companies, or they
will be dead” [ 8]. Or as Tim Misner
put it, “All hardware products
want to be Web sites” [ 9]. Or that
most human services will become
networked. Or as Tim O’Reilly
observed, “Virtually every application is a network application, relying on remote services to perform
its function” [ 10].
Convergence 2.0 recognizes
that interactive multimedia exist
within a networked world and
depend on networked services.
It recognizes that most services
have a social component. And it
recognizes that people are rooted
in the physical world and that
nected to things. Convergence 2.0
integrates interactive multimedia
with Internet-based services, social
networks, and the physical world
(see Figure 2).
September + October 2011