The p2d sensor
prototype [ 11]
[ 1] Egenhofer, M. J.
Next Generation of
Brazilian Workshop on
January + February 2008
[ 2] Abowd, G. D.,
C.G. Atkeson, A. Dey,
J. Hong, S. Long,
R. Kooper, and M.
A mobile context-aware
tour guide.” ACM
3 (November 1997):
[ 3] Counts, S., M.
Smith, and J. Zhao.
Annotation in Support
workshop CHI2007, San
Jose, Calif., 2007.
attached services [ 1].
An early application of this
type of technological advancement was implemented in
Atlanta in the late 1990s; visitors to the Georgia Tech campus
were able to experience enhanced
“future visions” of spatial awareness [ 2].
Since then the concept of MSI
has become increasingly feasible
and desired. New technology,
including digital cameras, GPS,
accelerometers, digital compasses, and RFID chips, is constantly
being built into mass-market
mobile phones, thus enabling
the user to interact with his or
her surroundings in new ways.
These innovations are inspiring
industries to create new contact-less applications, such as in the
domains of ticketing and vending. Spatially related research,
in the form of Web-based mapping and geo-browsing, is beginning to be transferred to commercial mobile devices. MSI is
further boosted by virtual- or
enabling the continuous interplay between virtual and spatial
Research in MSI has traditionally focused on three main categories, which have now reached
a level of technical advancement
that makes them ideal for technology transfer into commercial
devices. The three categories are
wayfinding, access and creation
of spatial data, and augmented
Orientation and Wayfinding.
A good example of successful MSI
is the “flight-mode” visualization
in today’s car navigation systems.
The bird’s-eye perspective facilitates an efficient match of digital
information with the driver’s
view, thereby blocking out the
task-irrelevant rear view and
making closer parts of the road
more prominent than farther-away ones. As exemplified with
most wayfinding systems, MSI
is frequently a secondary task
that should not interfere with the
primary activity. This imposes
strong constraints on the interaction design.
Outside the car MSI is quickly
evolving as a means of supporting mobility in pedestrian
navigation, outdoor sports, and
traveling. However, more work
is required in this area to better
support the user undertaking
these activities. For example,
Scott Counts from Microsoft
Research proposed that the
“route” should be viewed as a
spatio-temporal document type
[ 3]. His group is currently investigating how runners can author
their own routes, which can be
automatically annotated with
sensor data for outdoor sports.
Accessing and Creating Spatial
Data. A common theme found
in MSI research is the ability to
access digital information that
has been attached to physical
places called points of interest
(POI). The Geo-Wand is a research
concept that enables tourists to
point their mobile phone at a