the more complex coordination and
collaboration processes that are an
integral part of GSE.
Yet these are not simply narrow job
related capabilities. These missing skills
would better equip them for a dynamic
future as adaptable and aware global
citizens, and enable them to function effectively in a complex professional setting.
Driving these needs, there are some critical
underlying trends that characterize the
incipient combination of global software
engineering and scaled agile methods.
First—the need to work globally and cope
with the challenges of global distance (
cultural, temporal, and geographic) that poses
[ 5, 14]; second—the need to work in a more
value driven context, where the purpose
of the enterprise, the goals of the customers, and the focus of the software need to
more tightly align [ 6, 10]; and third—the
concurrent need for developers to be more
proficient with working in multi-skilled
teams, collaborating with customers and
colleagues across the enterprise [ 11].
The scaling of agile methods now opens
an opportunity for software developers to
become a more integral part of their enterprises, especially in vendor organizations,
contributing as innovation partners to the
start of the requirements pipeline, through
product strategy, vision, roadmaps,
prioritization, conceiving feasible design
solutions, thus serving customer needs
and addressing their customer experience
through implementing well targeted, high
quality, working software through regular
releases. This moves computing well beyond the notion of mere problem solving
where “students apply their knowledge
to specific, constrained problems and
produce solutions.” [ 17] For in that myopic
model of the discipline or profession,
the problem-posing and problem-fram-ing does not include the input of skilled
software engineers, who of necessity must
relegate those responsibilities to others. In
turn, higher level managers dismissively ignoring the input of technical experts in the
developing of software intensive products
and services has caused waste and failure
in many projects [ 11].
The evolving nature of professional
practice in GSE, now demands explicit
awareness of the following new dimensions:
1) the tight interrelationship between soft-
ware process, practices, and roles brought
about by lean and agile approaches; 2)
strategies and techniques for effective
global collaboration; and 3) an appreciation
of the interactions between software and
business functions, processes and personnel
demanded by enterprise forms of agility. So,
I argue here that these higher-level portfolio
and program level topics, which move the
notion of agility beyond the team level, in
combination with approaches to multi-
skilled and global team collaboration, need
to be incorporated into computing curricula.
This charts a new roadmap for computing
We need more broadly educated, yet
technically able, graduates. Those who can
see the broader purpose and take global
leadership roles in partnership with other
stakeholders in their enterprises will have
more to offer and have a stronger chance
of survival in tomorrow’s shifting global
settings. Such graduates will not only be
more effective and contributing citizens,
but better equipped to deal with the realities of their professions. We owe it to them
to both deepen and broaden our curriculum to better face these challenges.
1. ACM/IEEE CS Joint Task Force on Computing
Curricula. Computer Science Curricula 2013. (ACM
Press and IEEE CS Press, 2013); doi: http://dx.doi.
2. Ambler, S. W. and Lines, M. Disciplined agile delivery:
A practitioner’s guide to agile software delivery in
the enterprise. (IBM Press, New York, 2012).
3. Aspray, W., Mayadas F. and Vardi M. Globalization
and Offshoring of Software - A Report of the ACM
Job Migration Task Force. (ACM, New York, 2006).
4. Beecham, S., Clear, T. and Noll, J. Do We Teach the
Right Thing? A Comparison of Global Software
Engineering Education and Practice, in Proceedings
2017 IEEE 12th International Conference on Global
Software Engineering, edited by D. Cruzes and A.
Sharma (IEEE, Los Alamitos, California, 2017), 11–20.
5. Clear, T., Beecham, S., Barr, J., Daniels, M.,
McDermott, R., Oudshoorn, M., Savickaite, A., and
Noll, J. Challenges and Recommendations for the
Design and Conduct of Global Software Engineering
Courses: A Systematic Review, in Proceedings of the
Working Group Reports of the 2015 on Innovation
& Technology in Computer Science Education
Conference, edited by N. Ragonis, and P. Kinnunen
(ACM, New York, 2015), 1–39.
6. Dingsøyr, T. and Lassenius, C. Emerging themes
in agile software development: Introduction to
the special section on continuous value delivery.
Information and Software Technology, 77 (2016),
7. Hanssen, G., Šmite, D. and Moe, N. Signs of Agile
Trends in Global Software Engineering Research: A
Tertiary Study. in Sixth IEEE International Conference
on Global Software Engineering Workshops. (IEEE,
Los Alamitos, California, 2011).
8. Kirk, D. and Tempero, E. A lightweight framework for
describing software practices. Journal of Systems &
Software, 85, (2012), 582–595.
9. Kloppenborg, T., Forte, F. and Lensges, M. Identifying
key Agile behaviors that enhance traditional project
management methodology, in 2017 Annual Meeting
of the Decision Sciences Institute Proceedings,
edited by X. Zhao (Decision Sciences Institute,
Washington, D.C., 2017), 12916411–129164122.
10. Lal, R. and Clear, T. Enhancing product and service
capability through scaling agility in a global software
vendor environment [forthcoming], in Proceedings
2018 IEEE 13th International Conference on Global
Software Engineering, edited by R. Espinoza and D.
Šmite, (IEEE, Los Alamitos, California, 2018).
11. Lal, R. and Clear T. Scaling Agile at the Program
Level in an Australian Software Vendor Environment:
A Case Study, in Australasian Conference on
Information Systems. (AIS, 2017), 1–12; https://www.
paper_184_FULL.pdf. Accessed 2018 February 12.
12. Leffingwell, D. SAFe® 4.0 Reference Guide: Scaled
Agile Framework® for Lean Software and Systems
Engineering. (Addison-Wesley Professional,
13. Matthes, F. et al. Teaching Global Software
Engineering and International Project Management-Experiences and Lessons Learned from Four
Academic Projects, in Proceedings of the 3rd
International Conference on Computer Supported
Education (CSEDU, 2011).
14. Noll, J., Beecham, S. and Richardson, I. Global
Software Development and Collaboration: Barriers
and Solutions. ACM Inroads, 1, 3 (2010), 66–78.
15. Paasivaara, M. Adopting SAFe to scale agile in a
globally distributed organization. In Proceedings of
the 12th International Conference on Global Software
Engineering, edited by A. Sarma and D. Cruzes, (IEEE
Press, Los Alamitos, California, 2017), 36–40.
16. The Joint Task Force on Computing Curricula,
Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Degree
Programs in Software Engineering, (ACM, New York,
17. Tucker, AB. Computing Curricula 1991,
Communications of the ACM, 34, 6 (1991), 68–84;
18. Wang, X., Conboy, K. and Cawley, O. “Leagile”
software development: An experience report
analysis of the application of lean approaches in
agile software development. Journal of Systems and
Software, 6, (2012), 1287–1299.
School of Computing and
Auckland University of Technology
Private Bag 92006
Auckland, 1142 New Zealand
DOI: 10.1145/3233988 Copyright held by author.