thinking concepts, provides examples of concrete activities and
exercises that the teacher can use in his or her classroom, and
presents a model for how to assess the attitude and maturity of
student’s computational thinking.
The material covers five concepts:
1. step by step instructions (or how the computer works);
2. detecting and finding patterns;
3. breaking down a problem in smaller parts;
4. abstraction and representation; and
5. algorithms and programming.
The progression basically follows these concepts, so teachers
start with the first and work through them one by one.
The material also considers seven attitudes:
1. dealing with complexity;
2. dealing with ambiguity and open problems;
3. adapting solutions to new situations;
4. evaluating own and others solutions;
5. experimenting and troubleshooting;
6. grit; and
7. communication and collaboration.
The learning objectives of the material, when used in teaching, is for students to:
• know that a computer does things step-by-step;
• have experience working with different types of problems
where he/she has benefited from or has developed concepts
and attitudes related to computational thinking;
• recognize computational thinking as a problem-solving
process together with computers that are based on a set of
concepts and attitudes; and
• be able to assess his/her own level of computational
The material consists of a set of slides presenting the concepts and attitudes, in addition to two matrices. The first matrix
defines the concepts. In addition, concrete activities and examples related to math, technology and other subjects are provided for each concept. The activities are either Bebras tasks or
activities from our handbook on computational thinking activities. Most activities can be carried out without a computer. The
second matrix provides an assessment tool where each attitude
progresses through three stages based on work by Phil Bagge,
Mark Dorling, and Thomas Stephens ( http://code-it.co.uk/atti-tudes). Each step is in the form of a concrete question for the
student to answer.
Measuring the number of students that have participated in the
project is challenging. The most specific figure we have is the
number of students that participated in the Bebras contest. In
the 2016 contest 3756 students from 47 schools in Linköping
participated. This corresponds to close to 30% of the students in
1. Introduction to computational thinking, overview of the
proposed new curriculum, introduction to Bebras, Hour
of Code, and Scratch Jr. Discussion: What support do you
need to implement the new curriculum?
2. Assessment of computational thinking skills. Discussion:
How to assess digital competence and programming in the
3. Introduction to our handbook on computational thinking.
Discussion: Now that you have learned the basics, how
should you proceed? This was the first workshop with
the full group, so we had a parallel session for the new
teachers, where we summarized the content of the first
two workshops to bring them up to speed.
4. Bebras and models for introducing programming and
computational thinking in K- 9. Hands on programming
exercises for those that were new to programming and a
seminar on the computer science behind Scratch for the
5. The results from Bebras and introduction to Hour
of Code. Programming in Python for those with
programming experience and a hands on introduction to
Hour of Code for those that were new to programming.
6. Presentation of the introductory material for
computational thinking. Discussion: Experiences from
trying out Bebras and Hour of Code, how can these
resources be used in teaching?
7. Presentation of how others have worked with the new
curriculum. Workshop on Micro:bit (http://microbit.
org) and Swift Playgrounds ( http://apple.com/swift/
playground). Discussion: What do you think of the
introductory material to computational thinking and how
does it work in your class?
8. From block programming to textual programming and
programming and algorithms in mathematics. Discussion:
How will you introduce programming in your teaching
9. Progression and more on algorithms in mathematics.
Discussion: What should students know after grade 3,
grade 6 and grade 9? (The Swedish curriculum lacks
details, so it is up to teachers to interpret the curriculum.)
10. Spreading to other teachers at the same school. Discussion:
How to spread the workshop contents and lessons learned
to other teachers, get all teachers involved in order to have
continuity at school level (instead of the level of digital
competence teaching at a given school being dependent on
a single teacher personally driving the change)?
11. Lessons learned and moving forward. Discussion: How will
you continue the work now that you have to work more
INTRO TO COMPUTATIONAL THINKING PACKAGE
To provide the teachers with a joint basic material on how to
introduce computational thinking, we put together a small resource package. The material defines the main computational