1. 5 Respect the work required to pro-
duce new ideas, inventions, and other
creative and computing artifacts.
The development of new ideas, inventions, and other creative and computing artifacts creates value for society, and those who expend the effort
needed for this should expect to gain
value from their work. Computing professionals should therefore provide
appropriate credit to the creators of
ideas or work. This may be in the form
of respecting authorship, copyrights,
patents, trade secrets, non-disclosure
agreements, license agreements, or
other methods of attributing credit
where it is due.
Both custom and the law recognize that some exceptions to a creator’s control of a work are necessary
to facilitate the public good. Computing professionals should not unduly
oppose reasonable uses of their intellectual works.
Efforts to help others by contributing time and energy to projects
that help society illustrate a positive
aspect of this principle. Such efforts
include free and open source software and other work put into the
public domain. Computing professionals should avoid misappropria-tion of a commons.
1. 6 Respect privacy.
”Privacy” is a multi-faceted concept
and a computing professional should
become conversant in its various definitions and forms.
Technology enables the collection,
monitoring, and exchange of personal
information quickly, inexpensively,
and often without the knowledge of
the people affected. Computing professionals should use personal data
only for legitimate ends and without
violating the rights of individuals and
groups. This requires taking precautions to ensure the accuracy of data,
as well as protecting it from unauthorized access or accidental disclosure to
inappropriate individuals or groups.
Computing professionals should establish procedures that allow individuals to review their personal data,
correct inaccuracies, and opt out of
automatic data collection.
Only the minimum amount of
personal information necessary
should be collected in a system. The
retention and disposal periods for
that information should be clearly
defined and enforced, and personal
information gathered for a specific
purpose should not be used for oth-
er purposes without consent of the
individual(s). When data collections
are merged, computing professionals
should take special care for privacy.
Individuals may be readily identifi-
able when several data collections are
merged, even though those individu-
als are not identifiable in any one of
those collections in isolation.
1. 7 Honor confidentiality.
Computing professionals should protect confidentiality unless required to
do otherwise by a bona fide requirement of law or by another principle of
User data observed during the normal duties of system operation and
maintenance should be treated with
strict confidentiality, except in cases
where it is evidence for the violation
of law, of organizational regulations,
or of the Code. In these cases, the
nature or contents of that information should not be disclosed except
to appropriate authorities, and the
computing professional should consider thoughtfully whether such disclosures are consistent with the Code.
A practicing computing professional
2. 1 Strive to achieve the highest qual-
ity in both the process and products of
Computing professionals should insist on high quality work from themselves and from colleagues. This
includes respecting the dignity of
employers, colleagues, clients, users,
and anyone affected either directly
or indirectly by the work. High quality process includes an obligation
to keep the client or employer properly informed about progress toward
completing that project. Professionals should be cognizant of the serious negative consequences that may
result from poor quality and should
resist any inducements to neglect
conversant in its