data in the context of home range use,
and the third is the exploitation of domain knowledge encoded as a collection of rules that help the system
imagine possible foraging and social
behaviors from environmental and
geographic parameters. Much of what
is creative and interesting about the
blogs derives from the latter domain-specific types of data analyses. Although the developed principles apply more broadly, new applications
would require construction of knowl-edgebases pertinent to the domain of
use. While this is a clear limitation of
our approach, note our ecological interpretation of movement data in particular would be applicable to several
other species. For example, we have
already developed a version of Blogging Birds for golden eagles (Aquila
chrysaetos) for use by RSPB conservation officers, successfully reusing the
second, as well as the first, type of
During the course of the project, we
also discovered ecologists had limited
knowledge of the foraging behavior of
red kites in Scotland, as they had not
been studied extensively following
their relatively recent reintroduction.
We could thus encode only a limited
number of rules per habitat type. The
absence of any large-scale corpus of
texts in this domain also meant we
could not apply the deep learning
methods that are rapidly gaining popularity for generating linguistic variation in computer-generated texts.27 In
future work, we plan to invite Blogging
Birds’ users to contribute behavioral
observations from across the U.K., enabling us to simultaneously curate a
larger set of rules and further public
Finally, our ideas demonstrated
here are applicable more generally.
Telemetric data is ubiquitous, captured by smartphones and other mobile devices, as well as through GPS
sensors embedded in vehicles used by
the transportation industry and others.
Even albums of time-stamped and geo-tagged photos provide data similar to
what we used here. The nature of the
blogs, along with the information
sources used for data enrichment,
would depend on the application, to
blog about a holiday or reveal the provenance and journey of a food item in a
supermarket. In effect, we have demonstrated it is possible to blog about
such data through a process of data enrichment and natural language generation, opening up new avenues for using
AI to engage people through data.
This research was supported by an
award from the RCUK Digital Economy
Programme to the dot.rural Digital
Economy Hub, award reference EP/
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Advaith Siddharthan (email@example.com)
is a reader in the Knowledge Media Institute at The Open
University, Milton Keynes, U.K.
Kapila Ponnamperuma (kapila.ponnamperuma@arria.
com) is the lead natural language engineer at Arria NLG
plc, Aberdeen, Scotland, U.K.
Chris Mellish (firstname.lastname@example.org), now retired, was
a professor of computer science at the University of
Aberdeen, Scotland, U.K., at the time this research was
Chen Zeng (email@example.com) was a research
assistant on the Blogging Birds Project at the time this
research was conducted.
Daniel Heptinstall (firstname.lastname@example.org) is a senior
international biodiversity adviser on the U.K. government’s
Joint Nature Conservation Committee.
Annie Robinson (email@example.com) was a
research fellow on the Blogging Birds Project at the time
this research was conducted.
Stuart Benn (firstname.lastname@example.org) is a communications
officer for the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds in
René van der Wal (r.vander email@example.com) is a
professor of ecology at the University of Aberdeen,
Copyright held by authors.