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Ricardo Baeza-Yates ( firstname.lastname@example.org) is Chief
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Copyright held by owner/author.
Publication rights licensed to ACM. $15.00.
user. If a personalization algorithm
uses only our interaction data, we see
only what we want to see, thus biasing
the content to our own selection biases,
keeping us in a closed world, closed off
to new items we might actually like. This
issue must be counteracted through collaborative filtering or task contextual-ization, as well as through diversity, novelty, serendipity, and even, if requested,
giving us the other side. This has a positive effect on online privacy because, by
incorporating such techniques, less personal information is required.
The problem of bias is much more complex than I have outlined here, where I
have covered only part of the problem.
Indeed, the foundation involves all of
our personal biases. On the contrary,
many of the biases described here manifest beyond the Web ecosystem (such
as in mobile devices and the Internet of
Things). The table here aims to classify
all the main biases against the three
types of bias I mentioned earlier. We
can group them in three clusters: The
top one involves just algorithms; the
bottom one—activity, user interaction,
and self-selection—involves those that
come just from people; and the middle
one—data and second-order—includes
those involving both. The question
marks in the first line indicate that each
program probably encodes the cultural
and cognitive biases of their creators.
One antecedent to support this claim is
an interesting data-analysis experiment
where 29 teams in a worldwide crowd-sourcing challenge performed a statistical analysis for a problem involving
racial discrimination. 3
In early 2017, US-ACM published
the seven properties algorithms must
fulfill to achieve transparency and ac-
countability: 1 awareness, access and
redress, accountability, explanation,
data provenance, auditability, and
validation and testing. This article is
most closely aligned with awareness.
In addition, the IEEE Computer Soci-
ety also in 2017 began a project to de-
fine standards in this area, and at least
two new conferences on the topic were
held in February 2018. My colleagues
and I are also working on a website
with resources on “fairness measures”
related to algorithms (http://fairness-
measures.org/), and there are surely
other such initiatives. All of them
should help us define the ethics of al-
gorithms, particularly with respect to
As any attempt to be unbiased might
already be biased through our own cultural and cognitive biases, the first step
is thus to be aware of bias. Only if Web
designers and developers know its existence can they address, and if possible,
correct them. Otherwise, our future
could be a fictitious world based on biased perceptions from which not even
diversity, novelty, or serendipity would
be able to rescue us.
I thank Jeanna Matthews, Leila Zia, and
the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments, as well as for Amanda
Hirsch for her earlier English revision.
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