that are related to I/O operations. As a
results, they found that most of the energy consumed in free apps is related
to third-party advertisement modules
(which can be responsible for up to
75% of the overall energy consumed by
an app). Using a collaborative black-box approach, Oliner et al40 propose
a method for diagnosing anomalies,
estimating their severity, and identifying the device features that lead to
the anomaly. Using feedback received
by the proposed tool, end users improved their battery life by 21%.
We believe that debugging tools
will have the capability of inspecting the energy consumption of fine-grained program constructs during
runtime, as well as their common
ability to identify which value was attributed to a given variable. Debugging tools can go further and highlight
the CPU intensive lines of code, or the
memory-intensive methods, in a way
that developers can refactor them in
an energy-savvy manner. Novel energy-related testing and debugging tools
can mitigate the lack of tools.
Energy consumption is a ubiquitous
problem and the years to come will require developers to be even more aware
of it. However, developers currently do
not fully understand how to write, maintain, and evolve energy-efficient software systems. In this study we suggest
this is primarily due to two problems:
the lack of knowledge and the lack of
tools. With these problems in mind,
this article reviewed most of the recent
energy-related contributions in the software engineering community. We discuss how software energy consumption
research is evolving to mitigate these
two problems and, when appropriate,
we highlight key research gaps that
need better attention.
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Gustavo Pinto ( firstname.lastname@example.org) is an assistant professor
at the Federal University of Pará, Brazil.
Fernando Castor ( email@example.com) is an associate
professor at the Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil.
©2017 ACM 0001-0782/17/12 $15.00.
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