garding what managers know about
the effects of technology. Based on a
review of this research, we identified
three main conclusions about how
ubiquitous computing affects work
and organizations: how the effect on
jobs reflects a process of creative destruction; how it can be used to enable
or constrain people at work; and how
it is changing the nature of competition, work, and employment in ways
that are profound and that need to be
actively managed. We explored the effects of ubiquitous computing on six
key areas of talent management, identifying a series of questions to help
guide decision making as managers
transition from traditional to ubiquitous computing in these areas.
Ultimately, the critical issue for
managers to consider is not technology itself but that technology is fundamentally social, grounded in specific historical and cultural contexts.
As it becomes embedded in everyday
activities and social relations, technology affects all manner of human and
organizational elements (such as governance structures, work routines, information flow, decision making, human interactions, and social actions).
Fulfilling the potential of technology in
work and employment will thus require
recreating the way organizations operate
in a world of digital ubiquity to maximize
positive consequences for individuals
and organizations and minimize the
negative. Managing in a manner that
inspires human performance includes
framing the right questions, responding
to exceptional circumstances highlighted by intelligent algorithms, and letting
humans do things machines cannot. 16
Each organization’s leaders, along with
other stakeholders, must decide what
technologies are adopted, how they are
implemented, and the extent to which
they augment or detract from worker
autonomy, personal competence and
control, and interpersonal connections
with other human workers. At a broader
level, there is a strong need for responsible public policies across institutions,
not only to enhance competition, maximize economic surplus, and optimize
its allocation across stakeholders, but
also to minimize social and human
risks and abuses. Establishing such
policies will be an ongoing challenge
for years to come.
1. Aeppel, T. Robots work their way into small factories.
The Wall Street Journal (Sept. 18, 2014), B1–B2;
2. Aeppel, T. What clever robots mean for jobs. The
Wall Street Journal (Sept. 24, 2015); http://www.
3. Alge, B.J. Effects of computer surveillance on
perceptions of privacy and procedural justice. Journal
of Applied Psychology 86, 4 (Aug. 2001), 797–804.
4. Alge, B. J. and Hansen, S.D. Workplace monitoring
and surveillance research since 1984: A review and
agenda. In The Psychology of Workplace Technology,
M. D. Coovert and L.F. Thompson, Eds. Routledge, New
York, 2014, 209–237.
5. Alter, S. Work system theory: Overview of core
concepts, extensions, and challenges for the future.
Journal of the Association for Information Systems
14, 2 (Feb. 2013), 72–121.
6. Ambrose, M. L. and Alder, G. S. Designing,
implementing, and utilizing computerized performance
monitoring: Enhancing organizational justice. In
Research in Personnel and Human Resources
Management, G.R. Ferris, Ed. JAI Press, Greenwich,
CT, 2000, 187–219.
7. Autor, D. H. and Dorn, D. The growth of low-skill
service jobs and the polarization of the U.S. labor
market. American Economic Review 103, 5 (2013),
8. Ball, K. Workplace surveillance: An overview. Labor
History 51, 1 (Apr. 2010), 87–106.
9. Barley, S.R. Why the Internet makes buying a car less
loathsome: How technologies change role relations.
Academy of Management Discoveries 1, 1 (June 2015),
10. Brynjolfsson, E. and McAfee, D. The Second Machine
Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of
Brilliant Technologies. W. W. Norton, New York, 2014.
11. Cascio, W.F. and Aguinis, H. Research in industrial
and organizational psychology from 1963 to 2007:
Changes, choices, and trends. Journal of Applied
Psychology 93, 5 (2008), 1062–1081.
12. Cascio, W.F. and Montealegre, R. How technology
is changing work and organizations. Annual Review
of Organizational Psychology and Organizational
Behavior 3, 6 (2016), 349–375.
13. Castanheira, F. and Chambel, M. J. Reducing burnout
in call centers through HR practices. Human Resource
Management 49, 6 (Nov./Dec. 2010), 1047–1065.
14. Coovert, M.D. and Thompson, L.F., Eds. The Psychology
of Workplace Technology. Routledge, New York, 2014.
15. Demaerschalk, B. M., Vargas, J. E., Channer, D. D., Noble,
B.N., Kiernan, T.J., Gleason, E.A., Vargas, B.B., Ingall,
T.J., Aguilar, M. I., Dodick, D. W., and Bobrow, B. J.
Smartphone teleradiology application is successfully
incorporated into a telestroke network environment.
Stroke 43, 11 (Sept. 2012), 3098–3101.
16. Dewhurst, M., and Willmott, P. Manager and machine:
The new leadership equation. McKinsey Quarterly
(Sept. 2014); http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/
17. Elsby. M., Hobijn, B., and Sahin, A. The labor market in
the Great Recession. In Brookings Papers on Economic
Activity, Spring 2010, D. Romer and J. Wolfers, Eds.
The Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C., 2010.
18. Frey, C.B. and Osborne, M. A. The future of employment:
How susceptible are jobs to computerisation?
Technological Forecasting and Social Change 114
(Jan. 2017), 254–280.
19. Galston, W.A. Countering tech’s damaging effect on
jobs. The Wall Street Journal (Oct. 14, 2014); http://
20. Griffith, E. Wearable technology. Fortune (Oct. 27, 2014),
21. Hertel, G., Stone, D., Johnson, R., and Passmore, J.,
Eds. The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of the Psychology
of the Internet at Work. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,
Hoboken, NJ, 2017.
22. Kidwell, R.E. and Sprague, R. Electronic surveillance
in the global workplace: Laws, ethics, research, and
practice. New Technology, Work, and Employment 24,
2 (July 2009), 194–208.
23. Kühnle, H., Ed. Distributed Manufacturing: Paradigm,
Concepts, Solutions and Examples. Springer, London,
U. K., 2010.
24. Lu, J. L. Perceived job stress of women workers in
diverse manufacturing industries. Human Factors and
Ergonomics in Manufacturing 15, 3 (Summer 2005),
25. Lyytine, K. and Yoo, Y. Issues and challenges in
ubiquitous computing. Commun. ACM 45, 2 (Feb.
26. McNall, L.A. and Stanton, J.M. Private eyes are
watching you: Reactions to location-sensing
technologies. Journal of Business & Psychology 26, 3
(Sept. 2011), 299–309.
27. Meeker, M. Internet Trends 2017. Kleiner, Perkins,
Caulfield, and Byers, May 31, 2017; http://dq756f9pzlyr3.
28. Miles, J. and Hollenbeck, J.R. Teams and technology.
In The Psychology of Workplace Technology, M. D.
Coovert and L.F. Thompson, Eds. Routledge, New York,
29. Monga, V. The new bookkeeper is a robot. The
Wall Street Journal (May 5, 2015), B1–B7; https://
30. National Research Council. Collaboratories: Improving
Research Capabilities in Chemical and Biomedical
Sciences. National Academies Press, Washington,
D. C., 1999.
31. Nixon, A.E. and Spector, P.E. The impact of technology
on employee stress, health, and well-being. In The
Psychology of Workplace Technology, M.D. Coovert
and L. F. Thompson, Eds. Routledge, New York, 2014,
32. Orlikowski, W. J. and Scott, S. V. Sociomateriality:
Challenging the separation of technology, work, and
organization. Annals of the Academy of Management 2,
1 (Jan. 2008), 433–474.
33. Osman, M. Controlling uncertainty: A review of
human behavior in complex, dynamic environments.
Psychological Bulletin 136, 1 (2010), 65–86.
34. Pfanner, E. Japanese robot maker Fanuc reveals
some of its secrets. The Wall Street Journal (Mar.
27, 2015), B1–B2; https://www.wsj.com/articles/
35. Potosky, D. and Lomax, M. W. Leadership and technology:
A love-hate relationship. In The Psychology of
Workplace Technology, M.D. Coovert and L.F. Thompson,
Eds. Routledge, New York, 2014, 118–146.
36. Redden, E.S., Elliott, L.R., and Barnes, M.J. Robots:
The new teammates. In The Psychology of Workplace
Technology, M.D. Coovert and L.F. Thompson, Eds.
Routledge, New York, 2014, 185–208.
37. Rosen, L. D., Cheever, N., and Carrier, M., Eds. The Wiley
Handbook of Psychology, Technology and Society. John
Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
38. Ross, P., Sepper, R., and Pohjonen, H. Cross-border
teleradiology: Experience from two international
teleradiology projects. European Journal of Radiology
73, 1 (Jan. 2010), 20–25.
39. Rotman, D. How technology is destroying jobs. MIT
Technology Review (June 12, 2013); http://www.
40. Smite, D., Moe, N.B., and Agerfalk, P. J., Eds. Agility Across
Time and Space: Implementing Agile Methods in Global
Software Projects. Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2010.
41. Smith, A. and Anderson, J. AI, Robotics, and the
Future of Jobs. Pew Research Center, Washington,
D. C., 2014; http://www.pewInternet.org/2014/08/06/
42. Van Hoose, D. D. E-Commerce Economics. Routledge,
Milton Park, U.K., 2011.
43. Vanderkam, L. Work/life integration is the new normal.
Fortune (Mar. 15, 2015), 139.
44. Wooldridge, A. The Icarus syndrome meets the
wearable revolution. Korn/Ferry Briefings on Talent and
Leadership (Feb. 2015), 27–33; https://www.kornferry.
45. Zuboff, S. In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future
of Work and Power. Basic Books, New York, 1988.
Ramiro Montealegre ( Ramiro.Montealegre@colorado.
edu) is an associate professor of management and
entrepreneurship in the Leeds School of Business at the
University of Colorado, Boulder.
Wayne F. Cascio ( email@example.com) is a
distinguished professor at the University of Colorado. He
holds the Robert H. Reynolds Chair in Global Leadership in
the Business School at the University of Colorado, Denver.
©2017 ACM 0001-0782/17/12