sizes appear different in the photo. During modeling, we
modeled one candle holder and copied it to fit all other holders in the image, while requiring that they all lie on the same
plane and that their 3D sizes be the same. This efficiently
recovered the true 3D position and shape of each part.
Figure 6 shows several modeling results. In the top row
we show the input photos, in the middle row we show the
extracted and repositioned 3D models, and in the third row,
they are inserted with their textures into the same or a new
environment. The rightmost column shows the modeling
and repositioning of three objects in one complex photo.
Note that the menorah has been rotated, and translated on
the ground plane.
Figure 7 shows three examples of modeling and editing at the part-level, where some parts of the objects
(highlighted in gold) are replicated, copied, and optionally rotated to enhance and enrich the shape. At top left
is a tap, whose handle is augmented to be four-sided, and
also rotated. The whole tap is also copied and attached
to the other side of the wall. The top right shows a street
lamp with duplicated lamps moved to a lower position and
rotated. The whole lamp pole is also copied to other positions on the street. The bottom row shows different editing operations carried out on a telescope after modeling it.
Note that different scaling factors have been applied to the
different telescope parts.
outline view for 3-Sweep interaction, a solid model view,
and a texture view for checking the model and for image
editing. The user can choose between cuboid, cylinder,
and sphere primitives using a button or key shortcut. The
system also provides conventional menu selection, view
control and deformation tools. The 3-Sweep technique
has been tested and evaluated on a large number of photos as we demonstrate in this section and in the online
video (see https://vimeo.com/148236679). As shown in the
video, most of the examples were modeled in a few minutes
or less. The modeling process is intuitive and fluent, and
can be used by unskilled people following very little training. Editing and repositioning an object after modeling
requires an effort similar to using other parametric editing
6. 1. Modeling from single image and editing
In the following examples, we show how the acquired 3D
textured-model allows semantic image editing. Before editing, the image of the 3D model is cut out from the photo,
leaving a black hole which is filled using a standard image
Figure 1e demonstrates the modeling of a menorah, and
then rotating its arms to a different angles preserving the
inter-part relationships of the object. Note that all candle
holders have the same size, but due to the oblique view, their
Figure 6. Modeling different objects: a table (a), a lamp (b), a monument (c), a samovar (d) and a menorah (e). Top: input photos. Middle: extracted
3D models (blue) are rotated and repositioned. Bottom: modified objects inserted into the same or a new environment, with their textures.
(a) (c) (e) (d) (b)