principle), but these statements are all
alien or extra-alien. Since these proofs
grow with m, the general statement
that all Ptn( 3; m) with m ³ 3 exist, is
then unprovable in principle.
Recent successes in brute reasoning,
such as solving the Erdős Discrepency
Problem and the Pythagorean Triples
Problem, show the potential of this
approach to deal with long-standing
open mathematical problems. Moreover, proofs for these problems can be
produced and verified completely automatically. These proofs may be big,
but we argued that compact elegant
proofs may not exist for some of these
problems, in particular (but not only)
for the exact bound results. The size
of these proofs does not influence the
level of correctness, and these proofs
may reveal interesting information
about the problem.
In contrast to popular belief,
mechanically produced huge proofs
can actually help in understanding the
given problem. We can try to understand their structure, and making them
thus smaller. Hardly any research has
been done yet in this direction apart
from removing redundancy in a given
proof. Possibilities are changing the
heuristics of a solver or introducing
new definitions of frequently occurring
patterns in the proof. Indeed, simply
validating a clausal proof does not only
produce a yes/no answer as to whether
the proof is correct, but also provides
an unsatisfiable core consisting of all
original clauses that were used to validate the proof—revealing important
parts of the problem. The size of the
core depends on the type of problem.
Problems in Ramsey Theory typically
have quite a large core and therefore
provide limited insight. Many bounded
model checking problems, however,
have small unsatisfiable cores, thereby
showing that large parts of the hardware design were not required to determine the safety property.
To conclude, it is definitely pos-
sible to gain insights by using SAT.
However that “insight” might need to
be reinterpreted here, and might work
on a higher level of abstraction. Every
paradigm change means asking differ-
ent questions. Gödel’s Incompleteness
Theorem solved partially the question
of the consistency of mathematics by
showing that the answer provably can-
not be delivered in the näive way. Now
the task is to live up to big complexi-
ties, and to embrace the new possibili-
ties. Proofs must become objects for
investigations, and understanding will
be raised to the next level, how to find
and handle them.
So, when the day finally comes
and the aliens arrive and ask us about
Ptn( 3; 3), we will tell them: “You know
what? Finding the answer yourself gives
you a much deeper understanding than
just telling you the answer—here you
have the SAT solving methodology,
that’s the real stuff!” And then humans
and aliens will live happily ever after.
Wir müssen wissen. Wir werden
(We must know. We will know.)
David Hilbert, 1930
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Marijn J.H. Heule ( email@example.com) is a research
scientist at The University of Texas, Austin.
Oliver Kullmann ( firstname.lastname@example.org) is an
associate professor in computer science at Swansea
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